***********FebOct 20076 Newsletter: from Archan Misra, Chair TCCC***********


Dear TCCC colleagues,


Greetings and best wishes for a happy 2007! I had planned to send this newsletter out in mid-January, but I unexpectedly found time to take a much-needed vacation, which I grabbed gleefullyI! This is the first newsletter for 2007, a year which promises to be an exciting and eventful one for the TCCC and its membership. You will be pleased to note that your ExCom continues to plan and execute on many of our ongoing ideas and projects, with several initiatives set to bear fruit in the next month or so.


Rather than wait for these initiatives to be underway, I thought I should send out this newsletter with the following events and updates hope this edition of the newsletter finds all of you in high spirits and good health! The TCCC executive committee has been busy the last few months with various organizational matters and I believe we’ve been making good progress towards our underlying goals. This newsletter contains the following items and updates:

·                           Initiation of convergence-related activities. Introduction of recently-inducted TCCC ExCom members


·                           Up-to-date call for participation/papers atfor TCCC sponsored conferences

·                           Report on the organization and conduct of LCN  WoWMoM 20076

·                           Overview of an upcoming TCCC ExCoM project.A news article by Prof. Young-bae Ko, explaining ongoing IEEE activities in the hot area of “wireless meshes” (arranged by the efforts of Sunghyun Choi, the Untethered Technologies chair). Sunghyun, thank you for your efforts!


As always, please feel free to browse the newsletter (also available from our Website: http://tab.computer.org/tccc/) and let us know your opinions and feedback. We shall also be adding a few new features to our Website in the next couple of months, which I hope will increase its interactive nature and foster a greater sense of community. I’ll heave more to say on those issues in the next newsletter.



Archan Misra

TCCC Chair





After a period of planning and preparation, our Convergence Chair, Sanjiv Rai is now poised to spearhead some activities and initiatives related to the exciting area of Convergence. For those of you unfamiliar with the term, Convergence refers to the ongoing research and standardization activities to define a uniform control and signaling layer for both wired and wireless networks, its range extending from efforts at the radio layer on MAC-layer interoperability and spectral sharing to deployment of a common IMS-based services and access control infrastructure for provider networks.


As the first step in this initiative, Sanjiv will be circulating (to be sent out to all members on the TCCC mailing list) a “Convergence Questionnaire”, seeking feedback from our membership on the range of your interests and the types of activities and information you would value the most. Please take a few minutes to respond to this questionnaire, since that will help us determine the future direction of our efforts. This questionnaire will go out via the mailing list within a week. In addition to this Questionnaire, Sanjiv and our Member-at-Large, Prof. Uday Desai are holding the first-ever “Wireless Convergence and Seamless Communications” workshop (as part of the IEEE WoWMoM 2007 conference) in Helsinki, Finland on June 17. Further details on its organization, scope and associated deadlines are available at: http://www.ee.iitb.ac.in/wcsc/index.htm


Once the results from the questionnaire are examined, Sanjiv and his team plan to start a periodical Convergence newsletter, that shall highlight all relevant convergence activities and recent events.

I am pleased to inform you of the continuing expansion of our Executive Committee. As you may recall, one of my stated priorities was to expand the diversity of the ExCom, with an attempt to providing breadth in both geographical reach and expertise.  With this in mind, I’ve pleased to report on the addition of several well-known and eminent professional colleagues the ExCom.


Prof Joerg Ott (from Helsinki University of Technology, Finland) shall serve as the  “Multimedia Network Technologies” Chair—Prof Ott is an expert on various multimedia signaling technologies (such as SIP), as well as on the emerging area of delay-tolerant networks. Moreover, Prof. Ott is also active in the IETF and shall provide us with a better view of standardization activities and industry interests.


Dr. Frank Huebner (from AT&T Labs, USA) has agreed to serve as the “Finance Chair”—in this capacity, he will coordinate the financial planning of our activities and be responsible for the many facets of bookkeeping that require significant diligence and time. Being aware of Frank’s management and negotiations skills (displayed in the organization of the LCN conference), I am sure he will be a great asset to us.


Prof. U. B. Desai (from IIT Bombay, IIT) joins us as a “Member-at-Large”—he is a stalwart in the wireless community and widely respected across India, Europe and the US for his activities related to Bluetooth, and more recently, 802.16. His guidance and leadership should greatly help expand our activities within the vibrant technical community in India and Asia. Finally,

Mr. Iqbal Mohomed (from University of Toronto, Canada) shall serve as our Webmaster—I shall look to him to provide the boost needed to introduce various forms of interactivity to our Web presence. I thank all of them for their volunteerism.






As always, this newsletter reminds you of upcoming deadlines and im portant dates associated with We encourage you to participate in the TTCCC-sponsored following conferences. Please note the important dates below and plan to participate in our activities.  that have some deadlines/dates of current relevance.


1. Call for Papers: 32nd IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), 2007, October 15-18, 2007, Dublin, Ireland.


            The paper deadline for the main conference is ***April 2, 2007**. In addition, LCN 2007 will includes several other workshops, whose details will be available from the Web page above.


2. Call for Participation: 5th IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PERCOM) 2007, March 19-23, 2007,White Plains, USA.


                        Besides the main conference, PERCOM 2007 includes 10 workshops, a special demo session and several panels and keynote speeches. Early registration deadline is ***February 15, 2007***.


3. Call for Participation: 26th IEEE International Performance, Computing and Communications Conference, (IPCCC) 2007, April 11-13, 2007, New Orleans, USA.


                        Besides the main conference, IPCCC 2007 includes 4 workshops.


14.  Call for Papers in Workshops and Industry Session: 8th th IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM) 2007, June 18-21,2006, Helsinki, Finland.


            Deadline for (conference) Workshops and Industry Sessions are all in the next few days.paper submission: November 19, 2006.



   2. Call for Participation: 14th IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP) 2006, November 12-15, 2006, Santa Barbara, USA.


      Besides the main conference, ICNP 2006 includes the 2nd Workshop on Secure Network Protocols (NPSEC).


   3. Call for Participation: 31st IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), 2006, November 14-17, 2006, Tampa, USA.


   LCN 2006 includes five additional workshops, on topics including sensor networks, measurements, mobile and wireless computing and network security.


   New Sponsorship: As part of our promised effort to extend the TCCC’s support for new activities, I’m also happy to announce the extension of TCCC sponsorship to a new conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob) from 2007. The preliminary details of the WiMob conference are available at http://www.gel.usherbrooke.ca/WiMob2007/. (More details will follow in due course of time.)




Joe Bumblis, BAE SystemsArchan Misra, IBM Research





The 31st International Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN: http://www.ieeelcn.org) was held from November 14 through November 16, 2006 at the Embassy Suites in Tampa, Florida. The Embassy Suites complex is located on the campus of the University of South Florida (USF: http://www.usf.edu/index.asp); USF is a financial supporter of the LCN conference.


The Conference


The 31st LCN conference was comprised of three primary blocks: 1. Workshops; 2. Keynote Addresses; and 3. Conference papers. On Tuesday, November 14, 2006 the 31st LCN conference started with a full day of workshops; the Workshop block consisted of five workshops:


a) First IEEE LCN Workshop on Network Measurements (Half-day workshop), b) Second IEEE LCN Workshop on Network Security (Half-day workshop), c) First IEEE International Workshop on Practical Issues in Building Sensor Network Applications (SenseApp 2006: Full-day workshop), d) Second IEEE International Workshop on Performance and Management of Wireless and Mobile Networks (Full-day workshop) and e) Sixth International Workshop on Wireless Local Networks (WLN: Full-day workshop).


This author attended the "Second IEEE International Workshop on Performance and Management of Wireless and Mobile Networks." In Recent years, wireless and mobile communication systems have become increasingly popular as an inexpensive and promising means for ubiquitous communications. However, the performance and resource management of wireless and mobile communication systems are becoming a very crucial phase for future generation of wireless and mobile networks. This workshop focused on the design, performance and resource management of wireless and mobile networks. Of particular interest was a paper by Li, Claypool, and Kinicki titled "Packet Dispersion in IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks". Here the authors discussed the issues of 802.11 packet dispersion and the impact such dispersion may have on applications like streaming video and highly meshed networks. Another paper of particular interest was written by Khabiri and Bettayed titled "Efficient Algorithms for Secure Multicast Key Management". Here the authors present some simulated evidence of security-key loss in wireless secure transaction models. The workshop ended with several short paper presentations (poster session) covering such topics as mesh network routing delays, TV offerings over 3G cellular systems, and dynamic spectrum management.


On Wednesday, 15 November 2006 the first of two keynote addresses took place. This first keynote was offered by Dr. Bob Ianucci, Senior Vice President and Head of the Nokia Research Center. Dr. Ianucci's talk was titled: "In Search of the Next Big Thing". During his talk Dr. Ianucci addressed the ongoing revolution in the mobile communications domain, and the urgent signals of change visible within the technology and business environment. He also discussed several ways in which industry, academia, and standardization can adapt to perceive and respond to this rapidly changing and unpredictable environment. Dr. Ianucci discussed how the modern day cell phone has migrated from a "terminal" device to a gateway. The largest challenge has been to keep the internal power dissipation to three watts or less; more than three watts and the cell phone becomes to warm to hold. Moreover, today's cell phone typically has eight radios and 11 antennas; the antennas consume about 20% of the physical space in the phone.  Today's cell phone executes about three billion micro-instructions per second which allows the cell phone to act more like a gateway to other networked services, offering a very human-centric interface, allowing for an applications development platform, support of virtual/information spaces like WWW and database access, and currently offering limited sensing capabilities of the physical world (including human sensors) through a Bluetooth interface to sensor networks. In addition to the interfaces described above, Nokia continues to support standards like MIPI, Liberty Alliance, W3C, Wi-Fi Alliance, and the Trusted Computing Group to name a few. Dr. Ianucci completed his talk by expressing what he believes will be the "next big things". He believes the technology Nokia needs to watch includes: 1. Software radio technology; 2. Carbon nano-tube technology as possible filters between A/D converters and the cell phone antenna(s); 3. Environmental metadata for sensing applications; 4. Dynamic 3-D VI technologies with graphics accelerators; and 5. Emerging printed circuit board (PCB) technologies capable of creating a PCB from a printer. Additional detail can be viewed at: http://research.nokia.com


After the keynote address, the paper sessions commenced. The paper sessions were divided into three tracks. This author attended several tracks on a variety of topics including "Performance Evaluation" and "P2P and Overlay Networks". This author observed many outstanding papers in the paper tracks attended. However report length restrictions prevent a detailed review of any individual paper in this conference report.


On Thursday, November 16, 2006 the second conference keynote address commenced. Dr. Edward Knightly, Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rice University in Houston, Texas presented his talk titled "Large-Scale Urban Mesh Networks: from Deployment to Applications". The focus of this talk centered around the activity of many cities which are embarking on ambitious plans to cover large geographical areas with high-performance wireless access networks employing a mesh architecture. With the "digital divide" ever growing, the application of pervasive wireless mesh networks and transformational applications may indeed bring poor communities a step closer to the elimination of poverty. Such an experiment was set up in southeast Houston community. Dr. Knightly described how Rice University established an "access tier" comprised of an IEEE 802.11b mesh network, a "backbone tier" comprising several wireless hops to a gateway, and an "alternate route" tier comprised of a fiber optic network in this Houston community. Each home in the coverage area was equipped with a 10m high antenna and appropriate 200mW wireless hardware. Dr. Knightly explained that network optimization was achieved through a combination of node spacing, path length to the gateway, geometry of the nodes (i.e. clustering), randomness of the node placements, and link VS. network-wide behavior parameters. It was observed that the number of hops between the gateway and the farthest node was three. Dr. Knightly went on to explain that a major problem was the starvation issue in clustered wireless networks. In essence a node (or set of nodes) will be starved of data because of their distance from the gateway node (power issues) and because other closer nodes will "see" a clear channel before the nodes farther away from the gateway (timing issue). Dr. Knightly concluded his talk by briefly discussing the activities of the IEEE 802.11s standards group. His primary concern with the 802.11s committee work is the lack of support to change the 802.11 MAC to address the starvation problem. Additional information regarding Dr. Knightly's work can be located at: http://networks.rice.edu .


The remainder of the paper presentations followed Dr. Knightly's Keynote Address. Of particular interest to this author was the paper track on "Modeling and Advanced Techniques". A paper by Zhou, Pung, Ngoh, and Gu titled "Ontology Modeling of a Dynamic Protocol Stack". The authors took a holistic approach to the QoS issue of "knowledge" (predominantly the QoS of the Knowledge Base) used in network infrastructures. Of concern to these authors was a lack of end-to-end QoS simulation and real measurements to validate the model. The authors' research was limited to the Resource Description Framework Schema (RDFS) language for representation of information predominantly on the web (see: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-mt/ for details).




The 7th International Symposium n a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM 2006) was held from June 26-29, 2006 at the lovely border town of Niagara Falls, USA. From the approx 140 papers submitted, the technical program consisted of 15 technical sessions, consisting of 15 extended papers, 32 regular papers and 11 poster presentations.  Two of the more prominent themes emerging from the conference technical track were a) the importance of multimedia traffic management (including rate control and cross-layer optimizations) for a variety of wireless applications and b) the heightened importance of security (included intrusion detection, location hiding etc.) for sensor-network based applications. Interestingly enough, the support of a combination of interactive and broadcast multimedia traffic seems to be the main technical challenge for emerging cellular and mesh network architectures—several papers highlighted the enhancements that would need to be at the MAC and routing layers. There was also significant audience interest in several well-known problems related to sensor networks, with a noticeable trend towards research in various “middleware” aspects of sensor networks (besides the traditional focus on MAC and routing layer issues).


Some of the interesting papers at the conference included “Entrapping Adversaries for Source Protection in Sensor Networks” by Y. Ouyang. et al (which describes a technique for inserting low-latency loops in the data delivery path to shield the location of a source sensor from an eavesdropping adversary), “Mobile Element Based Differentiated Message Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks” by Y. Gu, D. Bozdag and E. Ekici (which describes how the travel schedule of mobile elements or data mules can be orchestrated to address differential QoS tolerances in the generated data), “Some Insights from Bounds on UWB Sensor Localization” by S. Venkatesh and M. Buehrer (which relates the accuracy of localization to enhancements at the MAC layer to permit high throughput of packets containing range estimates) and “An Energy-Efficient Forwarding Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks” by M. Busse, T. Haensselman and W. Effelsberg (which shows how a new multi-link data forwarding approach, where a single transmission reaches multiple receivers, can improve the energy efficiency and lifetime of sensor networks).


The conference program included two, extremely well-received, keynote speeches. The first keynote speech titled “Multimedia Content on Mobile Devices: Opportunities and Challenges” by Dr. Kumar Ramaswamy (VP, Corporate Research,Thomson) focused on the challenges and issues related to multimedia delivery by cellular providers in a converged network provider. Dr. Ramaswamy highlighted the importance of the increasingly popularity on broadcast multimedia interactions (e.g., mobile TV via technologies such as DVB), and argued that interactive multimedia traffic would emerge as a value-added service over the basic broadcast traffic, presenting several challenges for integrated signaling, service creation and service management. The second keynote speech titled “Networking in a Heterogeneous, Intermittent World” by Dr. Kevin Fall (Principal Engineer, Intel Research) presented a fascinating overview of the emergence of delay, mobility and disconnection tolerant applications as a new paradigm of communication in a variety of scenarios. His talk highlighted how DTN scenarios resulted in new research challenges in both protocol modification and application design, and also presented newly emerging research on the applicability of DTN techniques to underwater marine networks.  In addition, WoWMoM 2006 also featured a very lively panel discussion on “Integrated Optical and Wireless Technologies for Broadband Access and Metro Networks”, which highlighted how advances in broadband amplifiers and other technologies could lead to tighter integration between a fiber-wired backbone and a wireless-based metro access network.

WoWMoM 2006 was collocated with a set of five very successful workshops, including themes related to “autonomic communications” “experimental evaluation of wireless networks”, “distributed computing techniques in mobile applications”, “middleware components for sensor networks” and “trust and privacy in pervasive environments”. Each of these workshops attracted a focused and lively audience and generated significant discussion and debate on emerging research trends in specific niche areas.

Next year, the 8th edition of IEEE WoWMoM will be held in Helsinki, Finland on June18-21, 2007. Look forward to everyone’s participation in this conference!




Finally, I’d like to say a few words about a community-based, Web-oriented initiative that we plan to introduce shortly. The TCCC ExCom has been debating on better ways to build more collaborative interaction within our community. We believe that one of the ways to foster such a sense of community will be through the development of a “Community Web page” where various research and technical projects being pursued globally by our members can be categorized and organized for easy access. Such categorization provides two important benefits: a) it allows our members to visit a single TCCC-maintained Web site to obtain easy digestible views of global activities in areas of interest to them and b) allows members from all geographies to describe and advertise their ongoing work. Taken together, these two benefits should hopefully allow our far-flung members to discover and establish collaborative relationships, as appropriate—with communication and technological research becoming increasingly inter-disciplinary, we are convinced that such collaboration opportunities will be critical for future personal and collective success.

            To maintain some degree of control over the quality of the information, this “Community Projects” Web forum will be maintained by several TCCC ExCom-controlled volunteers. TCCC members will be free to submit descriptions of their projects/interest via Web-based forms for processing by our staff, who will then categorize and post this information on the Web page. We plan to provide only concise “executive summaries” of projects, as the goal is to facilitate “information discovery”—our hope is that the summary will contain pointers to more detailed Web pages at member institutions, and perhaps contact information, so that our readers can obtain more detailed information, if desired. Clearly, the success or failure of this initiative will depend entirely on how proactive and sincere all of you are in making this content available—this is a purely voluntary effort (we will not be trolling the Web to generate our own interpretation of other people’s projects!). Achieving a basic “critical mass” of project descriptions within a moderate time period is essential to ensure value to all concerned—both the producers and consumers of information. At present, we are testing out alpha versions of these pages, and obtaining internal feedback based on custom content—as soon as we are finished with our prototype, we shall make this resource available for participation by all our members. Please stay tuned for more information on this initiative!



Multi-hop Relay/Mesh Technology in IEEE 802 standards

Young-Bae Ko, Ajou University, Rep. of Korea


(This article was written by Prof. Ko, Asst. Professor in the School of  Information and Computer Engineering at Ajou University. Prof. Ko’s areas of interests include wireless networking protocols, radio technologies and ubiquitous computing. He is an expert on wireless networking protocols and was the recipient of the Best Student Paper Award in Mobicom 1998).


Wireless communications such as Wi-Fi and broadband wireless access (BWA) are gaining widespread popularity for constructing the local and wide area networks. The virtue of wireless medium has simplified the tedious or sometimes even impossible task of running cables, thus also reducing the cost and complexity of installation. However, the key question of whether the current wireless technologies can effectively replace their wired counterparts still remains at large, with the reason being the dependency on the wired infrastructure and some inherent limitations imposed by single-hop wireless communication architecture. For example, the legacy IEEE 802.11 WLAN still requires wire-line infrastructure, making the technology expensive and time consuming to deploy. Also, its network performance degrades sharply with the increasing number of users, failing to comply with the economy of scale.

Hence as a better alternative, a multi-hop relay/mesh technology is proposed, with the advantages of higher data-rate, capacity enhancement and ease of deployment, and so on. In this context, the IEEE-SA (standard association) has established several task groups for adopting wireless multi-hop relay/mesh techniques, among which are the IEEE 802.16a, IEEE 802.16j, IEEE 802.11s, IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.5 covering from wide to small area networks. Here, we mainly focus on the two task groups, IEEE 802.16 and IEEE 802.11, and briefly describe their aims, scopes and the current status. The figure below shows the medium access control (MAC) and the physical layer (PHY) of the related projects.



WMAN Relay/Mesh - IEEE 802.16a & j


The legacy IEEE 802.16 standard provides the specification for the fixed broadband wireless access (FBWA). With bandwidth of up to 75 Mbps, it uses both licensed and unlicensed frequency bands between 2 and 66 GHz. The IEEE 802.16 WG has set up IEEE 802.16a and IEEE 802.16j TGs, in order to apply the concept of multi-hop wireless communication for both fixed and portable/mobile BWA in metropolitan areas.

First, the IEEE 802.16a standard incorporates two different modes of communication, namely, a point-to-multipoint (PMP) and the mesh mode. PMP mode strictly requires all SS to connect to the base station (BS), whereas Mesh mode enables the mesh architecture such that the neighboring SSs can directly communicate with each other. For multi-hop mesh creation, each SS acts as a router and forwards traffic from one to another, until it arrives at the mesh-BS. It operates at the 2-11GHz frequency band that allows non-line-of-sight (NLOS) communication in both licensed and license-free spectrum. Internal routing between SSs is also allowed if it is not required to send traffic to the BS but to some destination SS in the same mesh. A mesh-BS connects the mesh network to backhaul link and other external networks. For data transmission, it requires a single path selection protocol between the nodes. However, the mesh mode in IEEE 802.16a is not backward compatible with the already existing PMP mode, and hence fails to extend the capacity and the coverage provided by the existing setup.

The IEEE 802.16j, which is currently being developed, aims to enhance PMP architecture by involving relay station (RS) between the BS and the SSs, thereby introducing the multi-hop communication.  The project shall amend and specify new methods that shall increase capacity, extensibility and the scalability of the existing legacy setup. The scope of this project includes the specification of the base station (named MMR-BS) and the relay stations, but shall refrain from any modifications to SSs. Since the creating of TG on March 2006, the IEEE 802.16 TGj is now under the process of preparing the baseline documents for creating the standard. The specification is expected to be adopted as a part of the working group standard by the end of 2007.


WLAN Mesh - IEEE 802.11s


The IEEE 802.11 family of standards is currently the most successful wireless networking standards that defines PHY and MAC sublayer for WLAN devices. The working group continues to advance with various amendments, e.g., 802.11e for QoS and 802.11n for higher data rates. However these standards are still lack of wireless distribution system (WDS) specification and include some possible drawbacks of throughput degradation and unfairness when applied to multihop networks.

The IEEE 802.11s ESS mesh aims at applying multihop mesh techniques to specify a wireless distribution system (WDS) to build a wireless infrastructure for the small to large scale WLANs. The ESS Mesh can be considered an IEEE 802.11-based WDS, a subset of the distribution system (DS) interconnecting the access points (APs), such that the end-user stations can exploit the efficient mesh backhaul for sending and receiving the data traffic. The activities of 802.11s TG consists of specifying a new protocol suite for the installation, configuration and operation of WLAN Mesh. Its implementation shall be atop existing PHY layer of IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n that operates in the unlicensed spectrum of 2.4 and 5 GHz frequency bands. The specification shall include the extensions in topology formation to make the WLAN Mesh self-configure as soon as the devices are powered up. A path selection protocol shall be specified in the MAC layer instead of network layer for routing data in the multi-hop mesh topology. This standard is expected to support MAC-layer broadcast/multicast in addition to the unicast transmissions. The standard shall also accommodate devices that are able to support multi-channel operations, or are equipped with multiple radios, with an aim to boost the capacity of the overall network. The specification is expected to be adopted as a part of the working group standard by March 2008.